Unicode, UTF-8 and multilingual text: An introduction
Anyway you should modify listings. Hope it can help anybody and maybe we can construct a listing. Author of package suggests using texcl option. Sometimes it helps, sometimes doesn't. Using latin1 in your documents will display German Umlauts just fine. You might need to set the document's input encoding to also be UTF There's a comp. Learn more. Asked 11 years, 3 months ago. Active 1 year ago. Viewed 61k times. NOTE: since i found errors in my initial setup, i heavily edited this question.
Alan Moore Janosch Janosch 1, 1 1 gold badge 10 10 silver badges 19 19 bronze badges. What input encoding did you declare in your document and what encoding do you use in your editor? I've had the same problem with French.Modern TeX engines, i. Today, through the use of packages such as fontspec and unicode-mathLaTeX users can access extremely sophisticated typesetting capabilities provided by OpenType fonts—including advanced multilingual typesetting and OpenType-based mathematical typesetting pioneered by Microsoft.
A follow-up article will build on this piece to cover background topics related to OpenType font technology. Unicode defines a character as:. You can think of a character as the fundamental unit, or building block, of a language or, more correctly, a script —a topic we discuss below.
It is worth briefly mentioning two important concepts: scripts and languages. The Unicode web site provides a useful definition of a script :. When writing systems for more than one language share sets of graphical symbols that have historically related derivations, the union of all of those graphical symbols is treated as a single collection of characters for encoding and is identified as a single script.
Using an example from Wikipediathe Latin script is comprised of a particular collection of characters which are used across multiple languages: English, French, German, Italian and so forth.
Of course, not all characters defined within the Latin script are used by all languages based on the Latin script—for example, the English alphabet does not contain the accented characters present in other European languages such as French or German.
A set of languages which use the same script may each have different typographic traditions when it comes to displaying typesetting text written in a particular language. Sophisticated typesetting software, such as XeTeX or LuaTeX, can take advantage of those rules built into OpenType fonts by allowing users to selectively apply them to the input text when typesetting text in a particular language—for example, by using the LaTeX fontspec package.
Just to make this clearer, here is a screenshot showing the free Scheherazade OpenType font opened inside the also free Microsoft VOLT font-editing software. From this screenshot you can see that Scheherazade supports the Arabic and Latin scripts and provides further specialist support for several languages that use the Arabic script—using so-called OpenType features, which are listed in the green-bordered box above. The interested reader can browse the OpenType tag registry to see the script tags and language tags currently used within the OpenType specification.
The set of characters which comprise the fundamental elements of a script or language don't all perform the same role. For example, in most languages there are characters for punctuationcharacters for numeric digits as well as the characters that we think of as letters of the alphabet which, for some scripts, also exist is uppercase and lowercase forms.
These properties are fully described in the Unicode Character Database UCD and are widely used in computerised text processing operations such as searching, sorting, spell-checking and so forth. Data files listing Unicode character properties are also available for download. Among the properties allocated each character, the most important one for our discussion is a numeric identifier assigned by its Unicode encoding, a topic we now turn to.
As you write some text using a computer keyboard, or by tapping the screen of a mobile device, your keystrokes are turned into numbers which represent the string of characters you are typing. At some point you may wish to transfer that text a sequence of numbers through an e-mail, a text message or via online communication such as a Tweet or a post on some form of social media. Clearly, the device on which you composed the text and the device s used by its recipient s must, somehow, agree on which numbers represent which characters.
This convention is called an encoding : a set of numbers used to represent a particular set of characters and the Unicode encoding is now the de facto global standard. Unicode is an enormous standard which covers far, far more than just text encoding but here we are focussing only on the encoding it provides. We mentioned that devices store and represent text as numbers—specifically, characters will stored as integers: whole numbers.
Each of these storage units can store integers up to a maximum positive value based on the total number of bits contained in each storage unit:. Clearly, a byte-sized storage unit can contain a maximum value of and 2 bytes can store neither of these is sufficient to store the full range of characters encoded by Unicode.
So, if we chose 4 bytes as our storage unit we certainly have more than enough room to store all the Unicode values, with each character being stored as an integer requiring 4 bytes 32 bits.
However, using 4 bytes to store everything is very wasteful of space because even the largest Unicode values need a maximum of 21 bits—which, if stored using 32 bits, would mean that 11 out of those 32 bits would never be used. Note : Although the Unicode range spans from 0 to 1, not every value in that range is actually used: for technical reasons, some values are considered to be invalid for actual use as Unicode characters.While typesetting a travel diary, I wanted to include place names in their local language using their local script.
The book is written entirely in English, and have only a standard text editor, without any exotic script support. I can look up the local name of the city online, but cutting and pasting can be a challenge, here is how to do it. UTF-8 is an encoding for the first million Unicode characters, and that is sufficient for all the spoken languages today including a lot of special symbols. The advantage is clearly you can copy characters from a browser they all support Unicode now and paste Windows supports Unicode and the characters can be saved reliably.
I was in a position that I was not able to use a UTF-8 encoded characters in the source file. This is a limitation of my text editor and those of the people I share the source with which has to be ISO character set without any special encoding. So I had to come up with something else to put a few special characters in the middle or an otherwise completely ASCII document.
The values must use lowercase letters! The original version of TeX supported this for characters. This is a format with four caret characters followed by four hexadecimal digits.
Any character created this way is parsed at the very initial stage or parsing the file. A character entered this way acts exactly as if it was typed in. Any character entered this way is processed through the system exactly as if you typed the character into the source.
You can NOT use this to cause a special characters to appear in the output without using the normal escaping. There is apparently a hex version of this in XeTeX and XeLaTeX that allow you to specify four digit hexadecimal values after a double quote character. Like this:. These act like regular TeX commands, which means they consume the space after the command. If you then want a space between two words, you need to use the regular trick of using another slash or using the two curley braces.
I have been told that these will cause the output of that position in the font to be displayed — which might not be what you want. For high numbers it is likely to be the same as the Unicode character, but for low values it will not necessarily be the same for non-unicode fonts. It should also be obvious that this can not be used in a command, or to create characters that do anything other than cause the character to appear in the output. If you are using the TeX already, you are probably already used to the consuming of a space at the end command, however it is really a bother to remember to add the things to assure spaces between foreign words.
I find that the caret notation is preferred not only because it is shorter, but because it does not have this extra space consuming behavior. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
I'm not sure whether I got your problem but maybe it helps if you store the source using a UTF-8 encoding. Convert your document to utf8. LaTeX just reads your text as it is.
If you want to use the utf8 input encoding, your document has to be encoded in utf8. This can usually be set by the editor. There is also the program iconv that is useful for converting files from iso encodings to utf. In the end, you'll have to use an editor that is capable of supporting utf. I have no idea about the status of utf support on windows, but any reasonable editor on linux should be fine. That said, the T E X-based compiler invoked by latex doesn't really support variable-length encodings; it needs big libraries that tell it that certain bytes go together.
Xelatex is Unicode-aware and works much better. I use LEd Editor with special "Filter" feature. This makes text easily readable when viewed in LEd Editor and there is no need for special packages.
Adding Unicode Characters to LaTeX documents
It works with bibliography files too. I have success with using the Chrome addon "Sharelatex". This online editor has great compability with most latex files, but it somewhat lacks configuration possibilities.
It only takes a minute to sign up. Have you considered using XeTeX? This Wikipedia article gives a good introduction. For full support for unicode input and unicode fonts, take a look at XeTeX; it's easy to get started — just select an appropriate font and the unicode characters in your input are directly typeset as unicode glyphs in the output.
Switching engines is not always a possibility, however, and sometimes you'll want to stick with pdfTeX for its other useful features. The best that regular LaTeX i.
Load the inputenc package to select the UTF-8 input encoding:. Note that the resulting input file must not have a byte-order mark BOM at the beginning, or else it won't compile. You can also use the [utf8x] option which has more extensive coverage but is not as well supported. I don't have any experience using this option. This defines a dash that has a small space on either side and will only allow a line break after it. This command works in XeLaTeX and probably other engines.
In case anyone is not satisfied with any of the answers: I just had the same problem and came up with my own little solution. I didn't want to dig into another distribution but stay with pdflatex. So I created a textfield in inkscapeput the character in, cropped it, and saved as pdf. You can include the pdf in your document like this:. In order to use XeLaTeX and even both pdflatex and xelatex on the same documentyou can use the simple unixode package :. You may then compile your document either with pdflatex or with xelatex.
Note: the package is in development; the aim is to support as many unicode equivalents as possible. A lot of the early multi-lingual support for LaTeX predates the widespread adoption of Unicode, although it looks like there's been some consolidation around Unicode recently.
So you might find something useful in specific language support packages, e. Another Unicode package for LaTeX has a new name formerly unicode ; now ucs.
You might also have a look at the excellent book The LaTeX Companionwhich includes a section on multilingual text. I use microtype font expansion in nearly every document I create. This question is really ambiguous, and I believe the answers are to the wrong interpretation.
To have LaTeX handle Unicode is what is being answered, what I understand is being asked is how to enter such characters into the file. And that depends on the editor used The methods given in the Unicode FAQ clash with xemacs definitions or get interpreted at random by gnome-terminal Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.
Asked 11 years, 11 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times.Nomenclature in Latex (Latex Basic Tutorial-14)
John D.In this chapter we will tackle matters related to input encoding, typesetting diacritics and special characters. In the following document, we will refer to special characters for all symbols other than the lowercase letters a—z, uppercase letters A-Z, figures 0—9, and English punctuation marks.
Some languages usually need a dedicated input system to ease document writing. This is the case for Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and others.
This specific matter will be tackled in Internationalization. The rules for producing characters with diacritical marks, such as accents, differ somewhat depending whether you are in text mode, math mode, or the tabbing environment. But characters is not enough to support non-English languages.
TeX has its own way of doing that with commands for every diacritical marking see Escaped codes. But if we want accents and other special characters to appear directly in the source file, we have to tell TeX that we want to use a different encoding. It only defines those symbols that are known to be available with the current font encoding.
You might encounter a situation where using UTF-8 might result in error:. This is due to the utf8 definition not necessarily having a mapping of all the character glyphs you are able to enter on your keyboard. Such characters include, for example:. In such case, you may try to use the utf8x option to define more character combinations. However, it might break up compatibility with some packages like csquotes. Another possiblity is to stick with utf8 and to define the characters yourself.
This is easy:. TeX sequence is what to print when the character matching the codepoint is met. You may find codepoints on this site. Codepoints are easy to find on the web. This is convenient if your keyboard lacks some desired accents and other diacritics. The following accents may be placed on letters. Although "o" letter is used in most of the examples, the accents may be placed on any letter. Older versions of LaTeX would not remove the dot on top of the i and j letters when adding a diacritic.
For example:. However, current versions of LaTeX do not need this anymore and may, in fact, crash with an error. If a document is to be written completely in a language that requires particular diacritics several times, then using the right configuration allows those characters to be written directly in the document.
This is very useful if one needs to use some text accents in a label, since no backslash will be accepted otherwise. More information regarding language configuration can be found in the Internationalization section.
This is a font encoding issue. If you want them to print their real symbol, you will have to use another font encoding such as T1, loaded with the fontenc package. See Fonts for more details on font encoding.
When writing about money these days, you need the euro sign.Latex Utf8 Characters. This query matches any two characters that could start an utf8-character, thus allowing you to inspect those records, it may give you a lot of false positives. The standard PDF device only does single-byte character sets sbcs in the warning message. This function was introduced in Qt 4. Let us redefine latex - forget rubber gloves and balloons. If in doubt about which encoding to use, use UTF-8, as it can encode any Unicode character.
The database itself has to be set to store UTF-8 text. Changing the file content encoding from UTF-8 to latin1 doesn't help. With incompatible choices, causing the code page disaster. You can find a large catalog of usable UTF The package provides facilities for efficient use of its large sets of Unicode characters.
It is a widely supported and flexible character encoding. Hex FF. Each character is encoded as a number within a specific character map e. Of these three, only UTF-8 should be used for Web content. UTF-8 is the most widely used way to represent Unicode text in web pages, and you should always use UTF-8 when creating your web pages and databases. The original LaTeX do not have good support for Chinese. Verify the file format using the following UNIX command: file -bi filename.
Both native bit and bit builds are available, and moreover, the bit includes separate builds for SSE2 bitAVX-2 bitand AVX bit instruction sets. For 1 and 2, googling will help you. UTF-8" You can obviously add it into. It is implemented as a filter which reads from stdin and writes to stdout, without any Foreign and special characters which are encoded as LaTeX commands are converted to their UTF-8 counterparts.
Below are the steps that I followed to fix it: Create a dummy database with utf8mb4 character set. For 3 and 4, see the manual for your editor.