It is a colourless, flammable gas having a sweet taste and odour. Natural sources of ethylene include both natural gas and petroleum ; it is also a naturally occurring hormone in plantsin which it inhibits growth and promotes leaf fall, and in fruitsin which it promotes ripening. Ethylene is an important industrial organic chemical. Ethylene use falls into two main categories: 1 as a monomerfrom which longer carbon chains are constructed, and 2 as a starting material for other two-carbon compounds.

The first of these is the single largest use of ethylene, consuming about one-half of the annual output. Polymerization the repetitive joining of many small molecules into larger ones of ethylene gives polyethylenea polymer having many uses, particularly in the production of packaging films, wire coatings, and squeeze bottles.

When polymerization is carried out at high pressures and temperatures, the product is called low-density polyethylene and has properties different from the high-density polyethylene formed by polymerization under Ziegler-Natta catalytic conditions see industrial polymers. The oligomerization catalysts are similar to the Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts. Ethylene is the starting material for the preparation of a number of two-carbon compounds including ethanol industrial alcoholethylene oxide converted to ethylene glycol for antifreeze and polyester fibres and filmsacetaldehyde converted to acetic acidand vinyl chloride converted to polyvinyl chloride.

In addition to these compounds, ethylene and benzene combine to form ethylbenzene, which is dehydrogenated to styrene for use in the production of plastics and synthetic rubber. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Ethylene chemical compound. Written By: Francis A. See Article History. Read More on This Topic.

Ethyleneone of the largest volume organic chemicals, can be produced either together with acetylene or with propylene. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

It gives rise to a large number of products, many in large volume. Some of the more important have been lumped together in a box Figure…. The structure of ethylene can be examined in VB terms to illustrate the use of hybridization. To reproduce the Lewis structure given earlier, it is necessary to contrive a double bond i. Such a bonding pattern…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!

### Structure and Bonding in Ethene: The $$\pi$$ Bond

Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About.In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight in atomic mass units of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together. A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles.

To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion.

## Polyethylene

This site explains how to find molar mass. Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance.

The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula. Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass average molecular weightwhich is based on isotropically weighted averages.

This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight.

The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom or group of atoms in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by Molecular weight of Ethene.At standard temperature and pressureethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Like many hydrocarbonsethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas and as a petrochemical by-product of petroleum refining. Its chief use is as feedstock for ethylene production.

Related compounds may be formed by replacing a hydrogen atom with another functional group ; the ethane moiety is called an ethyl group. For example, an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group yields ethanolthe alcohol in beverages.

Ethane was first synthesised in by Michael Faradayapplying electrolysis of a potassium acetate solution.

He mistook the hydrocarbon product of this reaction for methane and did not investigate it further. They, however, mistook the product of the reactions for methyl radical rather than the dimer of methyl, ethane. This error was corrected in by Carl Schorlemmerwho showed that the product of all these reactions was in fact ethane. At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Solid ethane exists in several modifications. In this form, the positions of the hydrogen atoms are not fixed; the molecules may rotate freely around the long axis.

Cooling this ethane below ca. Ethane can be viewed as two methyl groups joined, that is, a dimer of methyl groups.

In the laboratory, ethane may be conveniently synthesised by Kolbe electrolysis. In this technique, an aqueous solution of an acetate salt is electrolysed. At the anodeacetate is oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and methyl radicals, and the highly reactive methyl radicals combine to produce ethane:.

Synthesis by oxidation of acetic anhydride by peroxidesis conceptually similar. The chemistry of ethane involves chiefly free radical reactions. Ethane can react with the halogensespecially chlorine and bromineby free radical halogenation. This reaction proceeds through the propagation of the ethyl radical:. Because halogenated ethanes can undergo further free radical halogenation, this process results in a mixture of several halogenated products.

In the chemical industry, more selective chemical reactions are used for the production of any particular two-carbon haloalkane. The complete combustion of ethane releases Combustion may also occur without an excess of oxygen, forming a mix of amorphous carbon and carbon monoxide.

Combustion occurs by a complex series of free-radical reactions. Computer simulations of the chemical kinetics of ethane combustion have included hundreds of reactions.

An important series of reaction in ethane combustion is the combination of an ethyl radical with oxygenand the subsequent breakup of the resulting peroxide into ethoxy and hydroxyl radicals. The principal carbon-containing products of incomplete ethane combustion are single-carbon compounds such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. One important route by which the carbon-carbon bond in ethane is broken, to yield these single-carbon products, is the decomposition of the ethoxy radical into a methyl radical and formaldehyde, which can in turn undergo further oxidation.

Some minor products in the incomplete combustion of ethane include acetaldehydemethanemethanoland ethanol. It arises through reactions such as this:. Similar reactions with agents other than oxygen as the hydrogen abstractor are involved in the production of ethylene from ethane in steam cracking.

Rotating a molecular substructure about a twistable bond usually requires energy. Ethane gives a classic, simple example of such a rotational barrier, sometimes called the "ethane barrier".

Among the earliest experimental evidence of this barrier see diagram at left was obtained by modelling the entropy of ethane.Ethane vs Ethene.

Both ethane and ethene are hydrocarbons having carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons can be further categorized into groups depending on their functional groups. Alkanes and alkenes are the two basic categories in organic chemistry. Alkanes have single bonds only, and they are saturated compounds. Alkenes are hydrocarbons with carbon- carbon double bonds. These are also known as olefins. The physical properties of alkenes are similar to the corresponding alkanes.

Ethane is a simple aliphatic hydrocarbon molecule with C 2 H 6 molecular formula. Ethane is said to be a hydrocarbon because it consists carbon and hydrogen atoms only. Ethane is also known to be an alkane because it does not have multiple bonds between carbon atoms.

Further, ethane contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that a carbon atom can possess, making it a saturated alkane. Ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. The molecular weight of ethane is 30 g mol Each carbon atom in ethane has a tetrahedral geometry.

The H-C-H bond angle is o. The carbon atoms in ethane are sp 3 hybridized. A sp 3 hybridized orbital from each carbon atom overlaps to make the carbon-carbon sigma bond. The bond between carbon and hydrogen is also a sigma bond, but it is made up by overlapping a sp 3 hybridized orbital of the carbon with a s orbital of a hydrogen atom.

Ethane is a component of natural gas, so it is isolated from natural gas in large scale. Ethane is also produced as a by-product in petroleum refining. This is also known as ethylene, and it is a colorless gas. Ethene is the simplest alkene molecule, having two carbons and four hydrogens.

It has one carbon- carbon double bond, and the molecular formula is C 2 H 4. Both carbon atoms of ethene are sp 2 hybridized.

### Structure and Bonding in Ethene: The $$\pi$$ Bond

There are three sp 2 hybridized orbitals and one free p orbital to each carbon atom. Two sp 2 hybridized orbitals overlap with each other, to produce one sigma bond between two carbon atoms. And other hybridized orbitals overlap with the s orbital of hydrogen atoms. The two p orbitals of two carbon atoms overlap and produce one pi bond. The molecular weight of ethane is 28 g mol Ethene is a relatively non-polar molecule; therefore, it dissolves in nonpolar solvents or solvents with very low polarity.

Ethene is slightly soluble in water. Density of ethene is less than water. Ethene undergoes addition reactions, due to its double bonds. For example, in the hydrogenation reaction, two hydrogens are added to the double bond and converting ethene to ethane. What is the difference between Ethane and Ethene? Therefore, ethane is considered as a saturated hydrocarbon, whereas ethene is considered as an unsaturated hydrocarbon.The key difference between ethane ethene and ethyne is that ethane has sp3 hybridized carbon atoms and ethene has sp2 hybridized carbon atoms whereas ethyne has sp hybridized carbon atoms.

Ethane, ethene, and ethyne are important hydrocarbons that can be found in crude oil and natural gases. All these are gaseous compounds because they are very small molecules. Overview and Key Difference 2.

What is Ethane 3. What is Ethene 4. What is Ethyne 5. Similarities Between Ethane Ethene and Ethyne 6. Ethane is an organic compound having the chemical formula C 2 H 6. It is the second simplest alkane. An alkane is an organic compound having only sigma bonds between atoms. Therefore, ethane has only single bonds in its chemical structure; thus, it is a saturated compound. The carbon atoms of ethane molecule are sp3 hybridized carbon atoms. This means each carbon atom of the molecule has four sigma bonds around them.

The geometry around one carbon atom is thus tetrahedral. Each carbon atom has three hydrogen atoms bonded to them via single bonds. The most common use of ethane is to produce ethene via steam cracking process.

In addition, ethane is a refrigerant used in cryogenic refrigeration systems. Ethene is an organic compound having the chemical formula C 2 H 4. The common name of this compound is ethylene.

## Molecular weight of Ethene

There is a double bond between the two carbon atoms: a sigma bond and a pi bond. Therefore the hybridization of the carbon atoms in this molecule is sp2 hybridization. Thus, the geometry around one carbon atom is planar, and there are un-hybridized p orbitals in carbon atoms.

This makes the whole molecule a planar molecule.It is a colorless flammable gas with a faint "sweet and musky " odour when pure. Ethylene is widely used in the chemical industry, and its worldwide production over million tonnes in [6] exceeds that of any other organic compound.

Ethylene is also an important natural plant hormone and is used in agriculture to force the ripening of fruits. This hydrocarbon has four hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond. All six atoms that comprise ethylene are coplanar. The H-C-H angle is The double bond is a region of high electron densitythus it is susceptible to attack by electrophiles. Being a simple molecule, ethylene is spectroscopically simple.

Its UV-vis spectrum is still used as a test of theoretical methods.

Major industrial reactions of ethylene include in order of scale: 1 polymerization2 oxidation3 halogenation and hydrohalogenation4 alkylation5 hydration6 oligomerizationand 7 hydroformylation.

Flower initiation - Cucumber plants treated with ethylene increase their number of female flowers and fruits. This process is known as gassensexen in Germany [11]. Polyethylene consumes more than half of the world's ethylene supply. Polyethylene, also called polyetheneis the world's most widely used plastic. It is primarily used to make films in packagingcarrier bags and trash liners.

Linear alpha-olefinsproduced by oligomerization formation of short polymers are used as precursorsdetergentsplasticiserssynthetic lubricantsadditives, and also as co-monomers in the production of polyethylenes. Ethylene is oxidized to produce ethylene oxidea key raw material in the production of surfactants and detergents by ethoxylation. Ethylene oxide is also hydrolyzed to produce ethylene glycolwidely used as an automotive antifreeze as well as higher molecular weight glycols, glycol ethers and polyethylene terephthalate.

Ethylene undergoes oxidation by palladium to give acetaldehyde. Major intermediates from the halogenation and hydrohalogenation of ethylene include ethylene dichlorideethyl chloride and ethylene dibromide. The addition of chlorine entails "oxychlorination," i. Some products derived from this group are polyvinyl chloridetrichloroethyleneperchloroethylenemethyl chloroformpolyvinylidene chloride and copolymersand ethyl bromide. Major chemical intermediates from the alkylation with ethylene is ethylbenzeneprecursor to styrene.

Styrene is used principally in polystyrene for packaging and insulation, as well as in styrene-butadiene rubber for tires and footwear. On a smaller scale, ethyltolueneethylanilines, 1,4-hexadiene, and aluminium alkyls. Products of these intermediates include polystyreneunsaturated polyesters and ethylene-propylene terpolymers.

The hydroformylation oxo reaction of ethylene results in propionaldehydea precursor to propionic acid and n-propyl alcohol. Ethylene has long represented the major nonfermentative precursor to ethanol. The original method entailed its conversion to diethyl sulfatefollowed by hydrolysis. The main method practiced since the mids is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts : [14].

Ethylene is dimerized by hydrovinylation to give n -butenes using processes licensed by Lummus or IFP. The Lummus process produces mixed n -butenes primarily 2-butenes while the IFP process produces 1-butene. Ethylene can be used in production of sulfur mustard gasa chemical weapon. Global ethylene production was million tonnes in[7] million tonnes in[17] million tonnes in and million tonnes in Carbon can make single, double, or triple bonds. The number of bonds it makes determines the structure.

With four single bonds, carbon has a tetrahedral structure, while with one double bond it's structure is trigonal planar, and with a triple bond it has a linear structure. A single carbon atom can make up to four bonds, but by looking at its electron configuration this would not be possible because there are only two electrons available to bond with. The other two are in a lone pair state, making them much less reactive to another electron that is by itself.

The electron is not promoted spontaneously. It becomes promoted when a photon of light with the correct wavelength hits the carbon atom. All the bonds in Ethene are covalent, meaning that they are all formed by two adjacent atoms sharing their valence electrons. As opposed to ionic bonds which hold atoms together through the attraction of two ions of opposite charges. Sigma bonds are created when there is overlap of similar orbitals, orbitals that are aligned along the inter-nuclear axis.

Sites such as these are referred to as functional groups or functionalities. These groups have characteristic properties and they control the reactivity of the molecule as a whole.

Polymerisation of Ethene - Organic Chemistry - Chemistry - FuseSchool

How these functional groups and other reactants form various products are an important concept in organic chemistry. These carbon atoms already have four electrons, but they each want to get four more so that they have a full eight in the valence shell. Having eight valence electrons around carbon gives the atom itself the same electron configuration as neon, a noble gas.

Carbon wants to have the same configuration as Neon because when it has eight valence electrons carbon is at its most stable, lowest energy state, it has all of the electrons that it wants, so it is no longer reactive. Ethene is not a very complicated molecule.

It contains two carbon atoms that are double bonded to each other, with each of these atoms also bonded to two Hydrogen atoms. Since the carbon atom is forming three sigma bonds instead of the four that it can, it only needs to hybridize three of its outer orbitals, instead of four.

These structures are very similar to a 'peace' sign, there is a central atom with three atoms around it, all on one plane. There is rigidity in the Ethene molecule due to the double-bonded carbons. In Ethane there are two carbons that share a single bond, this allows the two Methyl groups to rotate with respect to each other.

These different conformations result in higher and lower energy forms of Ethane. In Ethene there is no free rotation about the carbon-carbon sigma bond. Sigma and Pi Bonds All the bonds in Ethene are covalent, meaning that they are all formed by two adjacent atoms sharing their valence electrons. Structure of Ethene Ethene is not a very complicated molecule.

Rigidity in Ethene There is rigidity in the Ethene molecule due to the double-bonded carbons. References Vollhardt, K. Organic Chemistry 5 th Ed. New York: W. Problems Write out the condensed formula for ethene.